Saturday, September 21, 2019
Personal Reflection On Community Psychiatry And Mental Healthcare Nursing Essay As a part of my clinical SSC, I had to do visits to a variety of mental health care settings: 1 visit to River House at Bethlem Royal Hospital 1 visit to Scutari Clinic at St Thomas Hospital 1 visit Cheyne Ward at Kings College Hospital 4 visits to 190 Kennington Lane Clinic These visits broadened my knowledge about mental health care and the services provided. In each placement, I observed at least one consultation and had an opportunity of talking to a variety of health care professions about mental health care services and patient care. This reflective account discusses my experiences in the mental health care and the things that I observed. A Brief History on Psychiatry Psychiatry can be defined as the study of mental illnesses, their diagnoses, management and prevention (Oxford Medical Dictionary) and when this is carried out in the community, it is called community psychiatry. Here is a brief timeline of transformation from mental asylums to community based care: In 1601 the Poor Law was established which stated that individuals who were unable to care for themselves should be supported (History of Mental Health and Community Care- Key Dates, Mind.org.uk). In 1800s, introduction of the County Asylums 1808 allowed the asylums and psychiatric hospitals to be established, treating mentally ill patients (History of Mental Health and Community Care- Key Dates, Mind.org.uk). The number of bed allocated to patients with mental health problems was at its peak in 1954 (152,000 beds). However, with the introduction of new treatment plans, such new anti psychotic medication, rehabilitation in community, the numbers of people being admitted to psychiatric hospital reduced (ABC of Mental Health, 2nd Edition and History of Mental Health and Community Care- Key Dates, Mind.org.uk). Mental health care centres were the one of the steps taken in terms of the implementation of mental health care policies in 1980s (Sayce et al. 1990). 1990s, mental health care in the community was reformed and implemented a form of community mental health team which is a team of professions including a psychiatric, psychologist, social worker, occupational therapist and care coordinator, manage people with mental illnesses in the community settings (ABC of Mental Health,2nd Edition). Community Mental Health Team and Other Services Mental health problems are normally managed by primary health care, e.g. GPs, and referrals can be made to either community mental health teams or secondary health care if needed (ABC of Mental Health Care, 2nd Edition and Mental Health Policy Implementation Guide: Community Mental Health Teams, 2002). The majority of the patients who use the services provided by community mental health care teams have time limited problems and will be referred back to their general practices once they have made the necessary recovery (Mental Health Policy Implementation Guide: Community Mental Health Teams, 2002). Reflecting back upon a consultation that I observed at Kennington Lane Clinic, a patient was discharged from the clinic after having used the services as there was a significant improvement in her condition. One of the reasons for the referral to community mental health care team is that primary health care may not be able to offer services such as cognitive behavioural therapy or rehabilitation, required for patients with certain mental disorders, for example obsessive compulsive disorder (Mental Health Policy Implementation Guide: Community Mental Health Teams, 2002). Once the referral is done, patient is risk assessed and assigned a care coordinator, who would support, advice and have a regular contact with the patient. At Kennington Lane Clinic, the care coordinator whom I spoke with stated that when one of his patients do not attend a scheduled appointment, then he would go to visit this patient at his/her home so in other words, providing a continuity of care and support. During my time at River House, a medium secure hospital, one of the doctors that I have met articulated the fact that medium secure hospitals fill the gaps that are created by both the psychiatric units of general hospitals and the high secure hospitals. Since the patients admitted to medium secure hospital are not suitable for both: high secure hospitals may not accept these patients because they are not dangerous or insane enough and psychiatric units of general hospital may find these patients dangerous enough to refuse the admission. Therefore, medium secure hospitals are solely developed to accommodate such patients. The same principle can be applied to community mental health teams as they are thought to form a bridge between primary and secondary health care (ABC of Mental Health Care, 2nd Edition). During the transformation to community based psychiatry, it was thought that the prevalence of homicide carried out by psychiatric patients after deinstitutionalisation was going up but in fact these claims were not accurate (Fakhoury and Priebe, 2007). Deinstitutionalisation and allowing patients with psychiatric problems to be managed and cared for in the community settings intended to lessen and curtail social stigma related to patients with mental health problems, to integrate these patients into the community, and importantly to reduce and prevent long term hospital stays (Fakhoury and Priebe, 2007). So, one can conclude the fact that Community health care teams allow patients with mental disorder to stay in the community and have a life that as normal as possible. However, Fakhoury and Priebe, 2007 stated that community psychiatry has not quite achieved its goal in terms of social integration as most of the psychiatric patients in the community are unemployed, live in a sheltered accommodation or even homeless. During my time at Kennington Lane Clinic, I met a patient whom I will be naming as Mr. A due to confidentiality code. This patient looked depressed and was complaining about having nightmares, unpleasant thoughts and phobia of using public transport. He also mentioned having thoughts of self harming and suicide. On further questioning, he revealed that he did think about committing suicide by overdosing himself with his antidepressants but could not do it as he could not find a place to do it: he is unemployed, homeless and lives with his elderly parents and occasionally with his daughters both of whom are married. In terms of what observed and felt at Kennington Lane Clinic, patients whose files that read or met were either using street drugs or having housing problems compared to the patients that I saw at Scutari Clinic in St Thomas Hospital, however this may not be the case in general since I cannot generalise what I observed during my time at both places to the rest of the country. One of the main difficulties experienced by the community mental health team is that the DNA (Did Not Attend) rates are very high in comparison to out-patient clinics at hospitals. I visited Kennington Lane Clinic four times in total but managed to observe only two consultations so I had to read the patient files and talk to their care coordinator instead. At the Scutari Clinic, I noticed that almost all the patients did attend their scheduled appointment with the doctor. I could not help but ask the duty doctors about the rate of DNAs both at the community based clinics and hospital based outpatient clinic levels and the answer that I received did confirm what I observed. I believe that one of good things about community mental health teams is that they facilitate home visits which are not normally offered for the patients attending out-patient clinics. I agree with William R. Breakey, the author of Integrated mental health services: modern community psychiatry, that home visits allow clinicians to see patients in their own surroundings and to allow them plan an appropriate care plan for a particular patient. Of course, there is a variety of services dedicated to patients with mental health problems: an appropriate choice of service would be chosen for the patients best interest. Reflecting back on my time at Kennington Lane Clinic, I came across Mr Bs file from which I read his past medical history and discussed this patient with a social worker who was involved with this particular case. On discussion, I found out that he was originally referred to the clinic by his GP and treated by this clinic quite a long time but unfortunately was relapsing and not compliant with his medication. When something like this is the case, patients can be detained at hospital against their own will under the Mental Act legislation (Rethink, Factsheet, 2010). This particular patient was going to be detained under Section 2 for 28 days. In order to carry this out, the patient had to be seen by 3 professions (2 psychiatrics and 1 social worker) in the presence of police. These three professions are specialise d in mental health care that would assess the patients mental state and make a decision. In addition, during my time at Cheyne ward, I shadowed a senior registrar who was on call in AE. I managed to observe a consultation which lasted about 30 minutes. Mr C was complaining about low mood and was self-harming. Having learnt that his father had a history of long term depression and his relationship with his father is not good, he was suggested to stay in hospital in order to carry out a full mental assessment. End the end of the consultation; he was happy to go ahead with this decision. As can be seen, the main difference between these two cases (Mr B and Mr C) is the way of the admission process: one is being admitted to hospital by force and the other one is giving consent. Mr C is an example of informal patient who is admitted to hospital with his own will and not detained under the Mental Health Act legislation, whereas Mr B is sectioned under the Mental Health Act legislation and cannot have the right refuse treatment. All in all, this revolution of change from hospital based treatment to community based treatment played an important role modernising the mental health services in the UK. Community mental health care provides help and support to those with mental illnesses at the community settings and appropriate patients are referred to this service. From what I observed and read, I can confidently say that community mental health services provide a care that is continuous and offer advice.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Labour Education And Extensive Employee Development Schemes Management Essay I think its possible to examine both perspectives in this paper and then decide where you stand in the debate. In essence the assignment is asking you to consider how the various types of education that happen in unions (labour education tools courses, issues courses, etc.) and employment development schemes empower workers to participate in decision-making processes in the workplace (i.e. democratic systems). Do these types of education within unions facilitate a more equal relationship between employers and employees than the education or learning that happens in non-unionzied organizations? Is it possible for workplaces to be run democratically? How does education contribute to establishing equity, empowerment and democracy in workplaces (if it does at all)? Chapter 5 in Bratton et al. discusses many of types of education that unions offer, not only for stewards. While it might be difficult to go into detail about all these forms of education, the question is asking you to think about labour education broadly for workers and the labour movement. The topic of the strategic relevance of human resource management in organizational strategies and business ideals offers a deep foray into one of the main ingredient that successfully underpins the achievement of leadership and managerial objectives. This insight impels the ongoing scrutiny into one of the key leverage of our current human resource management identified as employee development schemes. This assignment begins with an examination of trade unions and strategic HRM issues, will continue with a snapshot description of labour education and workers empowerment as popular organizational initiative and its objective of combining education as a managements approach to workers empowerment. Trade unions and strategic HRM In the literature the new HRM model is depicted as unitary; it assumes that management and workers share common goals, and differences are treated and resolved rationally. According to the theory, if all workers are fully integrated into the business they will identify with their companys goals and managements problems, so that what is good for the company and management is perceived by workers as also being good for them. Critical to achieving this goal is the notion of worker commitment to the organization. This HRM goal has led writers from both ends of the political spectrum to argue that there is a contradiction between the normative HRM model and trade unions. In the prescriptive management literature, the argument is that the collectivist culture, with its them and us attitude, sits uncomfortably with the HRM goal of high employee commitment and the individualization of the employment relationship including individual contracts, communications, appraisal and rewards. Much of the critical literature also presents the new HRM model as inconsistent with traditional industrial relations and collective bargaining, albeit for very different reasons. Critics argue that HRM policies and practices are designed to provide workers with a false sense of job security and obscure underlying sources of conflict inherent in employment relations. According to Godard, historically a major reason for managers adopting progressive [HRM] practices has been to avoid or weaken unions. However, he does concede that it would also be a mistake to view progressive practices as motivated solely or even primarily by this objective (1994, p. 155). Yet other industrial relations scholars, taking a more traditional orthodox pluralist perspective, have argued that independent trade unions and variants of the HRM model cannot only coexist but are even necessary to its successful implementation and development. They argue that trade unions should become proactive or change champions actively promoting the more positive elements of the soft HRM model. Such a union strategy would create a partnership between management and organized labour which would result in a high-performance workplace with mutual gains for both the organization and workers (Betcherman et al., 1994; Guest, 1995; Verma, 1995). What is clearly apparent from a review of the literature is that this aspect of the HRM discourse has been strongly influenced by political-legal developments and the decline in trade union membership and power in the US and UK over the last two decades. Therefore when you read Chapter 12 and the literature, it is important to remember that the debate is set in the contextual developments in the USA and Britain. The idea of embedding worker commitment in HRM model has led to strong argument among writers, that, there is a contradiction between the HRM normative model and trade unions. In the prescriptive management literature, the argument is the collectivist culture, with them and us attitude, sabotages the HRM goal of high employee commitment and the individualization of the employment relationship. Moreover, critics argue that, high-performance-high-commitment HR strategies provide workers with false sense of job security, by hiding underlying sources of conflict, inherent in employment relations. However, other scholars with pluralist perspective argue that not only do trade unions andhigh-commitment HRM model coexist but are indeed necessary if an HPWS is tosucceed (Bratton and Gold, 2003: 60). In addition, other researchers like Sparrow and Hiltrop (1994: 25) in Morley et al., (2006)identified a shift from the HRM function and its associated terrain to a strategic role in other areas of HRM activity. Thus, the greater emphasis on the integration of the human resource function into strategic decision-making, a decentralization of much activity to line managers, and pre-occupation with industrial relations and collective bargaining, has made way for a more SHRM activities such as communications, human resource development, workplace learning, career management and human capital accumulation EMPOWERMENT Empowerment is a concept that gained immense popularity in the 1990s and looks set to continue as a popular organisational initiative in the twenty-first century. It is a managerial ideology in its own right as well as being used with other initiatives and strategies such as BPR, TQM and the learning organisation. It is strongly associated with culture change initiatives, delayering and restructuring, and usually involves devolving power and responsibilities to teams at workplace or customer level (Arkin, 1995). Defining empowerment Various one-dimensional definitions, of empowerment have emanated from the practitioner literature. Typical of this view is Cook and Macaulays (1997) definition of empowerment as a change-management tool which helps organisations create an environment where every individual can use his or her abilities and energies to satisfy the customer (p. 54). Its all-embracing nature skirts over issues of how employees use their abilities, and whether there are boundaries to responsibilities, the degree and type of power employees enjoy, power relations between employee, managers, individuals, teams, customers and the context of empowerment. Both Wilkinson (1998) and Lashley (1997) have commented that empowerment is influenced by historical, economic, social and political factors, and in attempting a definition the context in which it is practised must be considered. Wilkinson (1998) defines empowerment as a managerially led initiative: Unlike industrial democracy there is no notion of workers having a right to a say: it is employers who decide whether and how to empower employees. While there is a wide range of programmes and initiatives which are titled empowerment and they vary as to the extent of power which employees actually exercise, most are purposefully designed not to give workers a very significant role in decision making but rather to secure an enhanced employee contribution to the organisation. Empowerment takes place within the context of a strict management agenda. (p. 40) Empowerment is thus a managerially controlled phenomenon operating at a workbased rather than a strategic level within the organisation. Honold (1997) implicitly acknowledges this by seeing empowerment as control of ones work, autonomy on the job, variations of teamwork, and pay systems that link pay with performance (p. 202). She further divides empowerment into five groupings: leadership, the individual empowered state, collaborative work, structural or procedural change, and the multidimensional perspective that encompasses the other four categories. Multidimensional perspectives on empowerment Honolds (1997: 206) final category shows that one approach is insufficient for empowerment to be effective. Others believe that combining education, leading, mentoring and supporting, providing and structuring is more likely to enable empowerment systems to be successful. Human resource systems should also be fully supportive of these components, providing a contextual framework within which empowerment systems are able to operate. This means linking the empowerment process to the vision, goals and aims of the organisation, through HRD, reward systems and employee relations systems combined with adequate feedback measures. . Bratton John and Gold Jeffrey (2003) Human Resource Management: Theory andPractice third edition London: Palgrave Macmillan Morley Michael J., Gunnigle Patrick and Sullivan Michelle O, Collings David G. Newdirections in the roles and responsibilities of the HRM function Personnel Review Vol.35 No. 6, 2006, 609-617 Sparrow, P. and Hiltrop J. M. (1994), European Human Resource Management inTransition, Prentice-Hall, Hemel Hempstead https://ulib.derby.ac.uk/ecdu/CourseRes/dbs/manpeopl/hold.pdf
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Beowulf as Heroic Archetype Monsters, their mothers, and dragons! The epic poem Beowulf, author unknown, includes all these mystical creatures and an impervious protagonist after which the poem is named. As the main character in the poem, Beowulf exemplifies the heroic archetype physically, spiritually, and ethically. Beowulf is superior to the average person in many areas, among them physical strength. Throughout the poem, Beowulf accomplishes feats that no other man would be able to survive and proves his boundless might. Beowulf is described to Hrothgar, king of the Danes, by a messenger as "...a mighty warrior, powerful and wise" (line 370). Beowulf himself challenges the insults of Unferth by saying, "...no strength is a match for mine" (line 534). Also, Beowulf tells Hrothgar and his company of a time when he had to face several sea monsters in the dark by himself, and still managed to kill them and swim to shore: ...nine was the number Of sea-huge monsters I killed. What man, Anywhere under Heaven's high arch, has fought In such darkness, endur...
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Magua, the Byronic Hero of The Last of the Mohicans Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Traditionally, heroes represented the ideal member of society, reflecting the moral compass of a culture. The "last great heroic tradition in our literature," the Byronic hero, rebels against society, questioning morality (Thorslev 185). The modern hero, or anti-hero, internalizes the struggle for reconciliation. Traditional heroes represent social order, Byronic heroes represent social rebellion, and modern heroes represent social upheaval. The melancholic, brooding, isolated Byronic hero thrives on rebellion, the traditional hero flourishes on optimistic goodness, and the modern hero grasps for purpose. Samuel Taylor Coleridge criticizes the "savage grandeur" of the rebellious Byronic hero (400). Magua, of James Fenimore CooperÃ¢â¬â¢s The Last of the Mohicans, presents fierce rebellion and indeed rises to "savage grandeur." The feared and scorned Magua represents an American version of the Byronic hero, seemingly presenting antithetical qualities of a traditional hero, exemplified in the Anglo-Saxon epic hero, Beowulf. Ã Representing the best their societies have to offer, traditional heroes possess characteristics of honor, bravery, loyalty, and steadfastness. They personify communal values and offer a reason to believe in the possibility of a meaningful life in an ordered, harmonious society. The epic hero journeys on a quest, experiencing difficulties along the way, and triumphantly returns to society. An example of a traditional hero, Beowulf, an Anglo-Saxon epic hero, relies on his courage, intelligence, and superhuman strength as he slays the destructive forces that threatens the community. He accepts and embraces the social values, never questioning or ... ...York: Doubleday, 1977. Coleridge. Samuel Taylor. "The StatesmanÃ ¢s Manual." 1816. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Ed. M.H. Abrams. 6th ed. Vol.2. New York: Norton, 1993. 398-400. Cooper, James Fenimore. The Last of the Mohicans. New York: Penguin, 1986. Gross, Theodore L. The Heroic Ideal in American Literature. New York: Free Press, 1971. Lieber, Todd. Endless Experiments: Essays on the Heroic Experience in American Romanticism. Columbus: Ohio State UP, 1973. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Ed. M.H. Abrams. 6th ed. Vol.2. New York: Norton, 1993. 480. The Oxford Companion to English Literature. Ed. Margaret Drabble. 5th ed. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1985. Thorslev, Peter L. Jr. The Byronic Hero. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1962. Wilson, James D. The Romantic Heroic Ideal. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 1982 Ã
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Kashun Davis TMAN 680 Fall 2012 Balanced Scorecard: Samsung Samsung is the technology-based organization that will be the subject for my Balanced Scorecard. Founded in 1938 in Seoul, South Korea, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd. engages in the manufacture, distribution, and sale of finished electronic products and device solutions worldwide. They offer consumer products, including mobile phones, tablets, televisions, Blu-rays, DVD players, home theaters, multimedia players; home appliances, such as refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, etc; Laptops and personal computers.The company also designs and manufactures integrated circuits for digital information storage in consumer electronics. It has operations in Korea, U. S. , Europe, Asia, Africa, Africa and China. Because of the large size of the Samsung Corporation, I will focus on Samsung smartphones, one of their technology-intensive business units. The vision of Samsung: Ã¢â¬Å"Samsung is dedicated to developing innovative technologies and efficient processes that create new markets, enrich people's lives, and continue to make Samsung a digital leader. Their mission statement, Ã¢â¬Å"At Samsung, we follow a simple business philosophy: to devote our talent and technology to creating superior products and services that contribute to a better global society. SamsungÃ¢â¬â¢s net sales have risen from 158. 9 billion in 2007 to 220. 1 billion in 2011. Their total assets grew from 280. 8 billion in 2007 to 343. 7 billion in 2011. Unfortunately their total liabilities went from 181. 7 billion in 2007 to 202. 6 billion in 2011. StockholderÃ¢â¬â¢s equity almost doubled from 80. billion in 2007 to 141. 1 billion in 2011. SamsungÃ¢â¬â¢s net income also increased from 12. 9 billion in 2007 to 21. 2 billion in 2011. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also not strange to see their employee base increase due to their explosive growth over this five-year time span. They had 254,000 employees in 2007 and now have over 344,000 employees in 2011 (Ã¢â¬Å"About Samsung,Ã¢â¬ 2010). Their electronics division has 190,500 employees at the end of 2011. With respect to the Smartphone business unit out of the 1. billion mobile phones sold worldwide in 2011, Samsung accounted for 330 million of those units. Their Galaxy S II sold more than 20 million units since its launch in 2011. In 2012, Samsung launched the Galaxy S III and expects to strengthen their brand and increase market share in the mobile phone arena (Ã¢â¬Å"About Samsung,Ã¢â¬ 2010). The balanced scorecard is defined as a management system that maps an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic objectives into performance metrics in four perspectives: financial, internal processes, customers, and learning and growth (NetMBA, 2002).The four perspectives mentioned above construct the balanced scorecard framework. To create a balanced scorecard for SamsungÃ¢â¬â¢s Smartphone business division this framework has to be applied. First, I will assess the mission, vision, c hallenges, and partners of the company. The vision of Samsung: Ã¢â¬Å"Samsung is dedicated to developing innovative technologies and efficient processes that create new markets, enrich people's lives, and continue to make Samsung a digital leader. Their mission statement, Ã¢â¬Å"At Samsung, we follow a simple business philosophy: to devote our talent and technology to creating superior products and services that contribute to a better global society. Samsung not only makes smartphones, but they also create components like displays and integrated circuits that also go into competitorÃ¢â¬â¢s smartphones, such as AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s iPhone. SamsungÃ¢â¬â¢s competitors in the mobile phone market are Apple, Microsoft, Google, HTC, Nokia, and Blackberry. Samsung doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t make their own proprietary software and hardware as Apple, Google, and Blackberry.Samsung exclusively uses GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s Android Mobile OS for their phones. Another challenge Samsung faces, is that their mobile phon es are not only in competition with other phones that have different software platforms, but they are in even stiffer competition with other phones that also use GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s Android Mobile OS. This market in itself is very fragmented from the fact that more than 4,000 distinct smartphone models exist that uses the Android operating system (Valazco, 2012). Fortunately for Samsung they command 25. % of the smartphone manufacture market putting them on top. LG, Apple, Motorola, and HTC own 18. 4%, 16. 3%, 11. 2%, and 6. 4% of the smartphone manufacture market respectively (Ã¢â¬Å"comscore reports July,Ã¢â¬ 2012). With respect to the balanced scorecard framework, a strategy map will assist with connecting the four perspectives and how they relate to each other. The strategic measures chosen for the Learning & Growth Perspective were chosen based on information listed in the SamsungÃ¢â¬â¢s annual report. SamsungÃ¢â¬â¢s employees have grown over the past few years. SamsungÃ¢â¬ â¢s social etwork presence is currently greater than their competitors, but there is always room for improvement. Samsung invested $8B USD in R&D, which this funnels down to organizational capital and learning from their competitors. With respect to the Internal Process Perspective $8B USD were invested into R&D for innovation. Customer Satisfaction is never perfect in any organization, thus leaving room for improvement. Not to mention customer satisfaction can translate into sales. Management of operations was chosen because process improvement is always needed in an organization.The customer perspective measurements are strengthening the brand, gaining OEM market share, and exceeding customer expectations. All of these links to financial success within the organization, thus focusing on these measures is vital to the growth Samsung expects to see in the future. Stockholder equity, net sales, and net income all affect the customer, internal, and learning & growth perspective measu res and vice versa. This provides a top to bottom and bottom to top flow balanced measures. Learning & Growth Perspective| Objective| Measure| Target| Initiative|Grow Human Capital| # Of Employees in Samsung Electronics Division| 200,000 employees| Aggressive Recruitment and Retention Program| Improve Information Capital| Social Networking Effectiveness| 6 Million Twitter Followers; 40 Million Facebook Likes| Aggressive & Interactive Social Networking Campaign| Build Organizational Capital| Submittal of Employee Ideas| 5,000 Employee Ideas Submitted| Conduct Organizational Learning Study of Samsung Mobile Division (Amiri, 2010)| Learn from our Competitors| Mobile OEM Market Share| Increase Mobile OEM Market Share by 20%| Analyze competitors customer base and meet the needs of that customer base through innovative mobile technology | Internal Process Perspective| Objective| Measure| Target| Initiative| Manage Innovations| Successful Research & Development Projects| Double R&D Project s| Allocate more capital to R&D projects and their implementation| Manage Customer Relations| Customer Satisfaction| Double and Sustain Customer Satisfaction scores| Aggressive ustomer service training for employees| Manage Operations| Value Added & Non-Value Added Operations| Increase Value Added Operations and Reduce/eliminate non-value added operations| Lean Six-Sigma Process Improvement Initiative (Qun, 2012)| Customer Perspective| Objective| Measure| Target| Initiative| Strengthen Samsung Smartphone Brand| Market Share| Increase Market Share| Aggressive Marketing Campaign| Gain Smartphone OEM Market Share| OEM Market Share| Increase Mobile OEM Market Share by 20%| Analyze competitors customer base and meet the needs of that customer base through innovative mobile technology| Exceeding customer needs and expectations| Customer Satisfaction Scores | Customer Retention| Double Customer satisfaction scores & retention | Customer Loyalty & Rewards Program | Customer Perspective| Obj ective| Measure| Target| Initiative|Increase Stockholder Equity| Stock Price| Increase from $489/share to $510/share| Increase Market Share| Increase Net Sales| Net Sales| Increase from 135B to 170B| Aggressive Marketing Campaign| Increase Net Income| Net Income| Increase by 15%| Make Operations Efficient and reducing costs| Sources About Samsung. (2010). Retrieved from http://www. samsung. com/us/aboutsamsung/corporateprofile/ourperformance/samsungprofile. html Amiri, A. , Jandghi, G. , Alvani, S. , Hosnavi, R. , & Ramezan, M. (2010). Increasing the Intellectual Capital in Organization: Examining the Role of Organizational Learning. European Journal Of Social Science,Ã 14(1/2), 98-108. comscore reports July 2012 U. S. mobile subscriber market share. (2012, Sept 04). Retrieved from http://www. comscore. com/Insights/Press_Releases/2012/9/comScore_Reports_July_2012_US_Mobile_Subscriber_Market_Share NetMBA. (2002). Netmba business knowledge center.Retrieved from http://www. netmba. com/accounting/mgmt/balanced-scorecard/ Samsung Group. (2011). Samsung profile 2011. Retrieved from http://www. samsung. com/us/aboutsamsung/corporateprofile/download/Samsung_Profile_2011-EN-final-revise. pdf Qun, Z. , Irfan, M. , Khattak, M. , Abbas, J. , Xiaoning, Z. , & Shah, M. (2012). CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS FOR SUCCESSFUL LEAN SIX SIGMA IMPLEMENTATION IN PAKISTAN. Interdisciplinary Journal Of Contemporary Research In Business,Ã 4(1), 117-124. Valazco, C. (2012, May 15). Techcrunch. Retrieved from http://techcrunch. com/2012/05/15/3997-models-android-fragmentation-as-seen-by-the-developers-of-opensignalmaps/
Monday, September 16, 2019
Introduction In this report I will examine the case Ã¢â¬Å"Alibaba: Competing in China and Beyond.Ã¢â¬ Alibaba under the leadership of Jack Ma, its founder has transformed into one of the most successful e-commerce companies in China. In the 2000s Alibaba had emerged as the largest e-commerce company in China. The company tailored its strategies to meet the needs of the customers and made a mark because of its understanding of the Chinese language and culture. However, some experts have also raised doubts over the sustainability of AlibabaÃ¢â¬â¢s business model. In my report I will critically analyze the factors that led to Alibaba sustaining its leadership position in the Chinese e-commerce market. I will Discuss the rationale behind Ma establishing Taobao.com. I will examine the factors that led to TaoboaÃ¢â¬â¢s success in the Chinese online auctions market. Furthermore, with BaiduÃ¢â¬â¢s entry into the e-commerce market, I will discuss the challenges that Alibaba faces with regard to sustaining its position in the growing e-commerce market in China. Finally I will critically examine AlibabaÃ¢â¬â¢s business model, possibilities of global expansion and the overall sustainability of the company. Questions 1. One of the most significant factors that lead Alibaba Group sustaining its leadership positioning in the Chinese e-commerce market was its ability to understand the Chinese market itself. Jack Ma, Alibaba Groups founder understood that Chinese consumers and their preferences distinguished them selves from those in other countries. Other companies such as eBay did not appreciate the local market circumstances in China; instead, they were using the strategies that were working in the United States. I believe for this reason Alibaba Group was able to sustain its leadership position. Many of the competitors lacked understanding of the Chinese language as well as the culture. Moreover, Alibaba.com made its services extremely easy for its customers to use. Ma, himself, was a non-technical person and this helped him keep the websites more user-friendly. In the article Ma refers to this stating: (Deresky, 2010). Ã¢â¬Å"If you follow GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s way, you always be a followerÃ¢â¬ ¦ We have to make the Yahoo! Search engine more human, more interactiveÃ¢â¬ ¦ something for the 1.3 billion people in China who arenÃ¢â¬â¢t technology-oriented, who donÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to ask the right question to a search engine Ã¢â¬â for people who are like me.Ã¢â¬ (p.320) An added factor is the services that Alibaba.com offered. The company believed that the first thing to do was to build a devoted customer base. Therefore, before adding any charges, a lot of the services were free of charge. Alibaba.com offered many services such as email and listings of products/services free of charge. In addition, e-commerce was vulnerable due to the fact that sellers and buyers did not trust the idea of sending money before receiving their products and the sellers wanted the money before they shipped their products. For these purposes, Alibaba.com launched Alipay in 2004, which was an online payment solution that allowed the users to make money transactions in an easy, quick and safe way. All and all Alibaba.com basically concentrated greatly on increasing costumer satisfaction even on the expense of not gaining maximum profitability. The company made its customer and getting to know what customers want its number one. Question 2. Jack Ma established Taobao.com in May 2003 to enter the profitable e-commerce market. Taobao.com also symbolized a part of MaÃ¢â¬â¢s Alibaba.com business model of joining SMEs, customers together, and helping SMEs grow. TaoboaÃ¢â¬â¢s goal was to generate an online trading platform for both B2C and C2C models. Several factors lead to TaoboaÃ¢â¬â¢s success over the rival eBay in the Chinese auctions market. First, Ma managed to raise a substantial investment of 56 million dollars from Softbank and teamed up with Masayoshi Son the founder and CEO of Softbank who had previously helped to defeat eBay in Japan (which lead to eBay leaving Japan in 2002). Also again Ma decided to build a loyal customer base before really attempting to make a profit; he did this by offering free listings as opposed to eBay, which charged for listings (Deresky, 2010). A major factors in TaoboaÃ¢â¬â¢s success was Alibaba Groups better management of the trust factor involved in e-commerce trading and better understanding of the local Chinese market. eBbay positioned its standard business model that was used in the United States and other countries. Taoboa, instead, established its own payment escrow service. With AliPay buyers paid into an escrow account that did not pay the seller until the buyer noted he had received the product; therefore, making the transaction thrust worthy since the money was in escrow until the transaction was completed (Deresky, 2010). Furthermore, Taoboa offered e-mail and chat services between users unlike eBay, which concealed identities and only had an offline messaging system. Taoboa also advertised aggressively through websites and billboards in major population areas something eBay did not do. The final steps of defeat for eBay was when Taobao offered three years of free listings and when Taoboa launched its B2C services in 2006. Moreover Taoboa had a large list of companies supporting it and also Alibaba.com members that could join easily. Overall TaoboaÃ¢â¬â¢s success over eBay has been attributed its ability to know the local Chinese market and adapt to it as opposed to eBayÃ¢â¬â¢s strategies of using a inefficient model that could not adapt to the Chinese market (Deresky, 2010). However, now Taoboa is facing competition from a company that knows the Chinese market very well. TaoboaÃ¢â¬â¢s main competitor Baidu, is the largest search engine market share holder in China. Baidu has a large, loyal customer base to work with and has ability to advertise and link its own ecommerce website. Taoboa will have many challenges facing the competition from Baidu. Never the less Alibaba Groups strong and evident presence in the Chinese e-comercial market signifies the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability overtake its competitors by combining all services and maintaining the user-friendliness of its services in B2B, C2C and B2C markets. Question 3. Absolutely it is sustainable. As Alibaba Group now further develops and expands its various web services, it must also additionally develop the various products within each website. Alibaba Group should have one department focusing one website development aspect and another department focusing on product development aspect. The company can still capitalize on his legacy sites that have millions of monthly subscribers. The intention for the company should be to find a way to raise the monthly run rate on each customer on a yearly basis, this would allow Alibaba Group to use these profits to fund the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts to expand. In my opinion Alibaba Group should focus on moving into Russia first, using their political ties to their advantage. Russia has many raw materials but few factory centers like China. If they could move into Russia, this would effectively provide geographical access to the Middle East and Northern Europe in the future. However, after Russia, I would mainly focus on expanding through Southeast Asia all the way down to Australia. This would fundamentally provide an ecommerce solution that can link B2B, C2C, B2C, sales across the entire Eastern part of the world. Conclusion After reading the case and answering to the questions it seems like the case is too good to be true. Even though Jack Ma had proven his capability ofÃ being a good leader and business man it is impressive how he started from scratch and was able to gather good people around him and develop this successful multinational company. I truly believe that MaÃ¢â¬â¢s and Alibab Groups key to success were the founder people in the company. Overall I see Alibaba Groups story as a big success. It is truly a inspirational story. In the words of MaÃ¢â¬â¢s business partner Masayoshi Son: (Deresky, 2010). Ã¢â¬Å"If thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a company outside of America that can introduce a new business model to the world, it is Alibaba.Ã¢â¬ (Founder and CEO of Softbank Corporation, in Japan 2005.) Reference: Deresky, H (2010). International Management: Managing Across Borders and Cultures. 7th ed. Pearson Boston. 310-322.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Genzyme was founded in 1981, Sanofi purchased the company in 2011. They went public in 1986, raising 27 million dollars. Genzyme startet as a start up Company by scientists studying genetically inherited enzyme diseases. Their strategy didnÃ¢â¬â¢t focus on the Ã¢â¬Å"blockbuster drugsÃ¢â¬ like other biotechnology companies but drugs for rare diseases. To developing a drug, it takes 10-14 years at the cost of around 800 million. But the blockbuster drugs had 1 billion dollars revenue. Genzyme has received several honor awards like Ã¢â¬Å"national medal of technologyÃ¢â¬ . The food and drug administration established in 1983 the Ã¢â¬Å"Orphane drug actÃ¢â¬ giving seven years market exclusivity to developers of drugs for rare diseases. This gave Genzyme big advantage when it comes to clinical trials, advertising and sales, it does not requires a lot. Their first success was the Ã¢â¬Å"CeredaseÃ¢â¬ drug- to treat the Gaucher`s disease. It was sold to over 4000 patients, with annual revenue of 800 million dollars. They had different way of manufacturing and sales compare to other companies. They did not do licensing to large pharmaceutical company. Genzyme was the worlds third largest biotech company in 2006 only profiting of rare diseases. Reflection of the case * Avoided Ã¢â¬Å"blockbusterÃ¢â¬ market and good management Good strategic to focus on a niche market instead of the Ã¢â¬ blockbusterÃ¢â¬ market. The degree of existing rivalry and entry barriers was low. Henri Termeer took a risk in moving to a start up company but with his experience and expertise, the company went stronger and independent. * First ones to market and the exclusivity Genzyme entered a small, untapped market. Being the first biotech company that focus on rare diseases and having the market exclusivity made them leading biotech company. They had the ability to identify almost all customers. They had big advantage when is comes to clinical trials, restrictions, FDA and small numbers of test patients required.